Accounting and Auditing


Career Objectives

Implement and control *financial information systems in order to support business decisions.


Professional Profile

Professional trained in the management of *accounting, *financial and *tax information systems of the company, under *accounting regulations.

He manages *accounting and documentation of the purchasing and selling transactions of the products and services of the company, as well as its cost accounting, such as material costs, workforce, etc., and also non-production costs necessary to produce and sell an item.

He adequately handles legal and tax aspects of the commercial transactions that are related with his field of action.

He uses computational techniques for both information management and to perform *audits, which are investigations on this information by internal requirements of the company or by *external bodies of an official nature.

He is part of interdisciplinary work teams, acting as advisor of the executive levels of the companies in the field of *budget, administrative control of the operations and activities of the company, tax law, financial management and computer data processing.

Since generally the decision making requires the consideration of accounting data and especially of costs, he collaborates with the upper management in the formulation of objectives and operation programs.

For instance:

-Will a new proposed method cost less than the current one for manufacturing a product?

-Which of the different methods proposed is the best one?

-Will we manufacture a particular part of our product or better buy it?

-Do we remove a department that apparently makes us lose money?

-Shall we work with one shift or two?

-Will we temporarily close the factory?

Facing this kind of problems, it is evaluated whether one alternative is better than another, depending on its costs and the expected benefits of each one of them.

With this accounting information gathered, he formulates Accounting *Financial Statements, which are a set of documents where the *transactions carried out by the company are registered in a period and where also its financial condition is reflected, that is, the overall status of the company and the *assets it owns, as well as the profits and losses experienced.

He evaluates and interprets those Accounting *Financial Statements, to propose, implement and optimize *business management policies.


Specific tasks or activities carried out in the profession

-Through *accounting, he prepares *financial information, analyzes financial data and interprets them.

He expresses an objective opinion on the financial statement of the company and its management.

He detects critical areas within the company and points out courses of action that allow achieving improvements.

He weights information to present alternatives in decision making.

He develops information of *costs and *budgets.

He supervises the management of tax, municipal, labor procedures and customs operations.

He carries out the design of accounting *information systems, determines its application mode and makes improvements on them.

He creates a basic information bank for the upper management, which makes it possible to keep an up-to-date economic track of the company, its plans and achievement of goals.

He determines the implementation processes of *Audits.

He carries out Management Audits, Information Technology Audits, Audit of Financial Statements and Tax Audit, investigating issues such as budgets, frauds, conflicts on the payment of royalties and bank insolvency.

He performs studies of *economic and *financial problems that afflict companies and institutions.

He takes responsibility of the decision making process in the accounting, financial field, internal administrative control of operations and activities, management control, *audit, information systems and the proper use of information technology.

He advises the upper management on legal requirements of the tributary, labor and commercial type of the company.

In the government sector, he participates, from the internal dimension of the organizations, especially in Public Services of Tax, Labor, *Social Security and Customs Audits.


Occupational Field

-Business Companies and Institutions

-Comptroller (State office which controls different accounts of the Government)

-Cooperatives

-Labor unions

-Public Institutions

-Accounting advice firms

-Cultural and Educational Institutions

-Free practice of the profession as a consultant of companies in financial auditing, tax queries and management of the company.


Estimated time of College years

4 – 5 years


Main courses considered in the syllabus

Basic Training Courses

-Mathematics (3 semesters)

Professional Training Courses

*General Accounting I, II

*Cost Accounting I, II

*Auditing I, II

*Accounting Information Systems I, II

*Commercial Law

*Financial Mathematics

*Financial Administration I, II

*Business Budgeting

*Financial Statement Analysis

*Business Management

*Specialized Accounting

*Business Economics

*Labor Law

*Accounting Computer Lab

*Personnel Management

Information Technology Audit

*Public Finance

Complementary Training Courses

-English (3 semesters)

Specialties

Major: Computer Science

Major: Tax

Major: Accounting and Auditing


Vocation, Skills and Interests required in the candidate to this career 


Interests

-Taste for numerical calculations and valuation for its accuracy.

-Organizational entrepreneur

-Commercial Interest

-Taste for recording and organizing information

-Initiative for organizing and coordinating the stages of a task

-Sense of order

-Taste for *management

-Behavior governed by the principles of the efficiency in what he performs

-Interest in knowing of arrangement, coordination, functioning and execution of a work

-Tendency to use guidelines (sequences), classifications and detection of existing relationships, in the study and understanding of something.


Skills

-Numerical Reasoning, that is, ability, speed and accuracy for calculus, to manipulate numbers and solve quantifiable problems.

-Facility for mental numeric operations and estimation of quantities with low margin of error.

-Facility to relate and communicate with people.

-Ability to lead work groups.

-Someone analytical of situations involving a large number of variables.

-Leadership ability in the organization and coordination of a work.

-Ability to perform or carry out tasks and diligences.

- Dexterity in manipulating documents, records, classification and verification of information.

-Disposition to the initiative in decision making regarding organization

-Ability to analyze propositions or situations, anticipate consequences and be able to solve problems in a coherent way.

-Ability to synthesize, that is, to be able to conclude something in relation to a situation or reality in which many factors intervene.


Vocation

Build in the social, daily and economic aspect; the ability and satisfaction of "Know-how" and to complete a successful work.

Or any specific dream or longing which feels involved or oriented towards this direction.


Candidate Personality

-Methodical, Rigorous, organized and punctilious.

-Practical personality oriented to the achievement of specific objectives.

-Ease of harmonious integration into work groups.


Work Scope

-Urban

-Office environment, with a high level of information handling and management.


Related Careers

-Economics; Finance; International Trade; General Accounting; Public Accounting.


*Glossary of Terms

*Accounting: Order to keep the accounts properly.

*Tributary: Tribute: Taxes.

*Accounting Regulations:

Rules that are mandatory in the preparation of the accounts, both in their preparation and presentation, in order that companies can present uniformity in the financial or accounting statements and thus be able to make an interpretation of them.

*Accounting Financial Statements: Accounting financial reporting.

*Social Security: Savings that are realized during the active life of an employee with the purpose of having a remunerative fund during the period of retirement.

*Audit: Review of the financial, administrative and other operations of a company through the rigorous examination of its books, accounts and records together with their corresponding vouchers. This task is performed by external specialists, in order to evaluate the situation of the company.

*Sustainable: Sustaining economically over time.

*Financial: Finance: Finance deals with the collection and determination of the cash flow (inflows or outflows of money) required by the company, in addition to the distribution and management of those funds in order to maximize the economical value of the company.

*External Bodies of an official nature: such as Tax authorities, such as the Internal Revenue Service.

*Business Management: The good use of resources with a view to obtain better achievements in the objectives a company has proposed.

*Costs: The expenses that have been incurred in the production, administration and sale of the products or services of the company.

*Budgets: An early estimate of the costs of a product or service.

*Accounting Information Systems: Set of files, programs, supports and devices use for the storage and processing of accounting information.

*Management: Manage: Diligence that leads to the achievement of a goal.

*Transactions: Purchases or sales of goods or services.

*Assets: The value of what the company owns.

*General Accounting I, II: Different stages and aspects of the accounting cycle.

*Cost Accounting I y II: Different cost systems and the elements that comprise them, accounting of a cost system.

Its slogan is: “to each unit produced must be assigned the part corresponding to the manufacturing costs that have been incurred to produce it".

*Public Finance: Mechanisms that allow the State to obtain income and public spending; Analysis of the effect they produce on the national economy.

*Auditing I , II: Knowledge that allows to weigh and evaluate financial statements, accounting and administrative procedures, until the final opinion is obtained.

*Accounting Information Systems I & II: Methodologies for the analysis and design of an accounting system in a company and the implementation of these methods to general accounting systems and costs.

*Commercial Law: Acts of commerce, commercial companies and main laws that concern it.

*Financial Mathematics: Study of the methods based on arithmetic, algebra and statistics for the collection of information and resolution of financial problems in a company.

*Financial Administration I, II: Short and long term financial administration; Evaluation and use of financial resources.

*Business Budget: Planning and control of profits of a company in a short, medium and long term.

*Financial Statement Analysis: Analysis and interpretation of financial statements to judge the situation of a company and make the relevant recommendations.

*Business Management: Understand how the different resources of an organization and / or companies are combined with efficiency and effectiveness, and elements of the management process: planning, organization, direction and control.

*Specialized Accounting: The handling and collecting of basic financial reports in: a bank, an insurance company and non-profit facilities.

*Business Economics: *microeconomic and *macroeconomic factors applied to the planning and management process of the companies, since they influence the company.

*Microeconomic: Microeconomics: Economic analysis relating to the individual behavior of consumers, traders, producers, companies and industries, etc.

*Macroeconomic: Macroeconomics: Study of the factors of the national economy related to production and consumption of the country’s wealth and problems related to the employment level.

*Labor Law: Labor legislation which regulates the relations between the employer and workers, according to the current Labor Code.

*Accounting Computer Lab: Handling and application of accounting using a computer.

*Personnel Management: Administrative functions of the field of human resources: position analysis, recruitment and selection, training and assessment, systems of motivation and incentives and labor relations.

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