Bachelor’s Degree in Optics


Career Objectives

Detect and correct vision problems of the patient making use of optical technology.


Professional Profile

Professional specialized in vision problems; he is part of multidisciplinary teams.

His field is related to lens phenomena, optical systems and instruments and their application in visual function.

He has knowledge on *physiology and the structure of the eye, which enable him to detect and diagnose ocular structural abnormalities of the visual system.


Specific tasks or activities carried out in the profession

He carries out primary health work, detecting early vision abnormalities.

He performs instrumental evaluation of visual and eye health functions in each patient according to their characteristics, age, *symptomatology, medical history and reason for consultation.

He analyzes and contends the results obtained from the visual tests and prepares a professional assessment or judgment.

He establishes the *diagnosis and determines the eyeglass *prescription for the correction of the visual problem.

He informs the patient about his visual problem and its most appropriate treatment.

He formulates the clinical history and examination data of a patient.

If a pharmacological treatment or a surgical intervention is necessary, he proceeds to the referral of the patient to the eye doctor.

He interprets optical lenses prescriptions prescribed by ophthalmologists.

He brings optical formulas that correct the specific refractive errors that affect the visual system.

He uses the latest technology in the design, calculation, creation and finishing of optical surfaces, determining the shape and curvature of the surface of the ophthalmic lens, calculation of its thickness and the type of material with which it will be manufactured.

He describes the manufacture of the lenses, whether they are corrective and/or for protection.

He controls and follows up optical corrections.

He designs and develops vision training programs, using reeducation techniques, prevention and visual hygiene in the adaptation of optical aids.

He detects and corrects errors derived from bad habits that affect the visual system through the use of optical media.

He prevents eye damage by the proper indication of protective eyewear.

He designs, applies and controls *vision therapy programs in cases such as amblyopia (decreased visual acuity even with the best optical correction), treatment of *strabismus, diplopia (double vision), etc.

He describes the manufacturing of the contact lens to each of the person’s eyes.

He describes the manufacturing of special contact lenses for the treatment of *keratoconus, reverse geometry lenses for corneal deformations, integrating physiological and technological knowledge.

He applies controlled modification techniques of the corneal *topography with the use of contact lenses.

He adapts contact lenses and ocular prostheses in improving vision and the external appearance of the eye.

He detects, evaluates and solves abnormalities associated with the use of contact lenses.

He designs and analyzes *ocular prostheses.

He designs and analyzes optical instruments for measurement and control that will be incorporated into monitoring and *diagnostic elements.

He develops the production process of optical materials, and implements rules, methods and techniques for its control.

He investigates and develops materials of optical or photographic use.

He performs the design, analysis, development and production of photographic products.

He finds the right solution in the production of cases of ophthalmic optics, photography and/or optical instruments.

He incorporates the necessary technological enhancements for the proper development of his professional activity.

He participates in unidisciplinary and multidisciplinary work groups in projects related to *Optometry.

He collaborates with other professionals such as pediatricians, child psychologists and psychiatrists, due to the incidence of visual disorders on the performance and behavior of the general population.

He issues opinions, reports and *expert reports when necessary.

He identifies and analyzes environmental and occupational risks factors that can cause visual problems; as well as lighting issues, *visual ergonomics.

He acts as a responsible technical and legal professional of an ophthalmic optics, photography and/or optical instrument establishment.


Occupational Field

Primary Care Centers or Doctor’s offices

Public Hospitals

Private Health Facilities

Ophthalmological consultation centers

Manufacturing and / or distribution industries of optical and optometric products and instruments

Contactology Laboratories

Companies that require optical or laser techniques for measurement and control procedures

Manufacturing workshops for lenses or frames

Companies selling optical and optometric products and instruments

Observatories

Industry of any sector in the area of work safety

Teaching in Professional Training and University Education

Private practice of the profession


Estimated time of College years

4 to 5 years

Main courses considered in the study plan

Basic Training Courses

*Mathematics

*Physics

*Chemistry

*Biology

Professional Area

*Ocular Physiology

*Biochemical Processes of the Visual System

*Ocular Pathologies

*Optometry

*Optometric Instrumentation

*Ophthalmic Optics

*Adaptation of Ophthalmic Lenses

*Optical Materials

*Optical Design of Visual Compensation Systems

*Contact Lenses

*Adaptation Process of Contact Lenses

*Public Health

Specialties

Corrective Lenses

Contactology


Vocation, Skills and Interests required in the candidate for this career


Interests

Interest in Biology, Chemistry and Physics

Special attraction for *biophysics

Curiosity for human *morphology

Motivation for the service to the health of people, in direct contact with them

Appreciation for sciences and the scientific method

Interest in applying theory to practice

Curiosity and interest in the application of new technologies

Taste for the handling of instruments

Motivation for manual work, for making, building


Skills

Understanding of Biology, Chemistry and Physics

Logical ability, which allows him to solve problems, make judgments and draw conclusions

Ability to apply theory to practice

Fine motor skills

Ability for decision making

Urban


Vocation

-Service vocation; genuine interest in a task that is based in the scientific and technological knowledge to efficiently solve health problems of people.

Or any specific dream or longing which feels involved or oriented towards this direction.


Candidate Personality

Practical

Detail-oriented

Methodical and rigorous when working

*Empathetic personality

Interpersonal relations that facilitate teamwork


Work Scope

Urban

Work in a laboratory and hospital environment

in direct contact with people


Related Careers

Ophthalmology (specialization in Medicine); Optical Technician; Medical Technologist major in Ophthalmology; Biomedical Engineering; Medical Technologist w/major in *Radiology and *Medical Physics.

Glossary of Terms

*Accommodation: Process by which the crystalline lens of the eye varies its focus to achieve good vision both near and far, as the case may be.

* Adaptation of Ophthalmic Lenses (Course):

-Adaptation of ophthalmic lenses to the frame

-Adaptation of the frame to the user

-Adaptation of *monofocal lenses

-Adaptation of *bifocals

-Adaptation of *progressive lenses

*Refractive error: Eye defects that cause an inadequate focus of the image on the retina.

*Astigmatism: Refractive error of the eye that prevents the clear focus of objects, due to an alteration in the curvature of the *cornea.

*Biophysics: Study of biology with physics principles and methods, such as the physics of vision, hearing, biomechanics, etc.

*Biology (Course):

General architecture of the human body

Human body *physiology

The skull

Central nervous system

Peripheral nervous system

The spinal cord

The cerebellum

Macroscopic and microscopic structures that make up the visual system and the organs attached to the eye

*Visual Field: It is the portion of space that the eye is able to capture when it is looking at a fixed point.

*Cornea: Transparent structure located in front of the eyeball.

*Corpuscles, Photons: Light components behaving like corpuscle or particle.

*Diagnosis: Identification of an illness.

*Diffraction: It is a type of interference.

*Optical Design of Visual Compensation Systems (Course):

Precise calculation of the magnification provided by the different optical aids

Calculation of the geometrical parameters of visual compensation systems in ophthalmic lenses, intraocular lenses and contact lenses

Calculation of physical parameters of visual compensation systems, for their construction

Techniques of analysis, measurement, correction and control of the effects of compensating optical systems on the visual system, in order to prevent possible adaptation problems

Laboratory Practices

*Focal length: Distance at which the image is formed.

*Empathetic: Person with the ability to put himself in the place of another.

*Visual Ergonomics: It studies visual problems due to inadequate lighting, distance and working time, posture, etc.

*Error in convergence: Loss of the parallelism of the ocular axes.

*Physics (Course) 2 semesters:

Physical phenomena related to the propagation of light

Physics to understand the eye as an optical system

Principles of optical instruments

Topics:

Behavior of light, dual nature: electromagnetic wave and *corpuscles and photons

Propagation of Light: speed (in the vacuum and in a medium) *Reflection and *Refraction phenomena

Image formation process and properties of optical systems:

Laws of Reflection in Mirrors

Laws of Refraction in *converging lenses, *diverging lenses

Determination of the *focal length in different types of lenses

Light phenomena: *Interferences, *diffraction, *polarization.

Optical Instruments: eyes, magnifying glass, glasses.

*Medical Physics: It is Physics applied to medicine, such as electromagnetic or mechanical waves that are part of physics and that are used in medicine to obtain images in the diagnosis or in the prognosis and treatment of illnesses such as in the case of x rays, ultrasound, etc.

*Ocular Physiology (Course):

Anatomy and functions from an optical point of view of the different eye structures

General biological processes that are related to the normal functioning of the visual system

*Physiology of each of its parts

*Photon: Unit of light that sometimes behaves as an electromagnetic wave and at other times behaves like a particle.

*Hyperopia: Refractive error of the eye that creates the formation of the visual image behind, instead of on the *retina itself.

*Optometric Instrumentation (Course):

Description and characteristics of the essential optical instruments

Description and characteristics of instruments used in the *optometric and *ophthalmologic practice

Instrumental tests of visual function and eye health evaluation

*Interference: Phenomenon that hinders the passage of light, altering its rectilinear propagation.

*Bifocals: These eyeglasses have two different optical powers; one for far vision and other for near vision.

*Converging lenses: Lenses that concentrate (converge) in a point the rays of light that pass through them.

*Contact Lenses (Course):

Different types of contact lenses in terms of their geometry, material and use

Physical-chemical properties of the types of contact lenses

Types of contact lenses related to ocular and refractive features:

*Presbyopia

*Dry Eye

Color and Cosmetic Contact Lenses

Extended wear of contact lenses

Contact lenses and *keratoconus

Contact lenses and *Corneal transplantation

Contact lenses post refractive surgery

*Therapeutic Contact Lenses

Adaptation of contact lenses in children

Among others

Manufacturing materials for contact lenses

Description of the different manufacturing processes and materials used in the contact lens industry

Geometry and physical-chemical properties of ocular prostheses

*Diverging Lens: Lens that diverges or separates the rays that pass through it, so that the image focus is formed by the extension of these rays backwards, that is, the image focus is formed before the lens.

*Spherical Lens: Lens with both concave and convex faces, as it can also be with one of its faces flat.

*Monofocal Lenses: Lenses for a single vision, can be for far, middle or near vision.

*Progressive Lenses: Lenses with zones that gradually go from focusing objects at a distance to focusing objects up close.

*Trifocals: Eyeglasses for viewing long distance, intermediate and close objects.

*Mathematics (Course) (2 semesters): Mathematics for the appropriate treatment of waves and light as an electromagnetic wave, necessary in the handling of *Optometry and *Optics phenomena. Statistical concepts for the understanding of epidemiological studies related to visual health.

Topics:

Complex numbers, Algebra, Matrices, Plain and Solid Geometry

Trigonometry, Graphic Representations, Derivatives and Integrals, Introduction to Differential Equations, Statistical Concepts

*Optical Materials (Course): Physical and chemical properties of the materials used in Optics and *Optometry.

Topics:

*Strength of Materials

Different types of lenses according to their construction materials and functions

Materials of ophthalmic frames

Materials of ophthalmic lenses

Treatment for ophthalmic lenses

*Strength of Materials: Study of elastic deformations, dislocations, hardening, fracture, fatigue in materials and other different problems of change in the microstructure generated by external forces.

*Myopia: Refractive error of the eye that creates the formation of the visual image in front of, instead of on the *retina itself.

*Morphological: Morphology: Study of the form, especially of an organism, or its parts.

*Ophthalmoscopy: Ocular examination technique to evaluate the health of the eye, providing information about alterations of the retina, optic nerve or blood vessels.

*Dry Eye: Persistent dryness of the *conjunctiva (thin transparent membrane covering the eyeball) and a somewhat cloudy cornea.

*Electromagnetic Wave: Form of transport through space, of electromagnetic energy (energy with an electrical component and another magnetic).

*Ophthalmic Optics (Course): Optical corrections or compensations by means of corrective lenses.

Topics:

*Spherical Lenses

Cylindrical Lenses

*Bifocals and *trifocals

*Progressive Lenses

Contact Lenses

Protective eyewear for radiation and coating

*Optometry (Course): Examination techniques of the visual function.

Topics:

Exploration of Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, Color vision, *Visual field

Characteristics of the different eye *refraction errors

Measurement of Refractive States of the eye: *Refractive errors, *Myopia, *Hyperopia, *Astigmatism, *Presbyopia, among others.

The motor system, *sensory nervous system, measurement of deviation of visual axes, accommodative function, *fusional vergence

*Binocular Vision

*Ophthalmoscopy

*Accommodation

*Ocular Pathologies (Course):

Main Eye disorders

Symptoms of Eye Diseases

Clinical examination methods and diagnostic techniques

Microorganisms involved in diseases of the visual system

Introduction to pharmacology of the visual system

Prevention, early diagnosis and visual health education

Prevention and maintenance programs related to visual health of the population

*Expert report: Report of the study and analysis done by a professional expert in the field.

*Polarization: Normally, a light wave vibrates in all planes (directions). Due to certain conditions of the environment through which it passes, it remains vibrating in a single plane. This phenomenon is called polarization of light.

*Presbyopia: Eye defect that is due to the lack of *accommodation of the eye to focus on nearby objects.

*Prescription: Treatment to be followed.

*Biochemical Processes of the Visual System (Course):

Biochemical knowledge of the eye and the process of vision

Biochemical mechanisms implied in eye inflammation and degradation, alterations in the lens, cornea and retina

Materials and basic laboratory techniques

Among others

*Adaptation Process of Contact Lenses (Course):

Evaluation of the state of the eye surface and identification of possible alterations that can may contraindicate contact lenses wear in a user

Necessary measurements of the eye surface for the adaptation of contact lenses

Medical procedures in the adaptation of contact lenses to different refractive errors and eye disorders

Indications and techniques for adapting contact lenses in cases of:

*Presbyopia Correction

*Dry Eye

Colored lenses

Extended wear of contact lenses

*Irregular corneas

*Therapeutic Lenses

Among others

Adaptation of *Ocular Prosthesis in improving vision and the external appearance of the eye

Cleaning and maintenance systems for contact lenses

Data logging and elaboration of medical histories

*Ocular Prosthesis: It is the aesthetic replacement of the eye, due to the total or partial absence of it in people who have suffered traumas or serious illnesses that has forced its removal.

*Keratoconus: Unusual condition, in which the *cornea takes the shape of a cone and is abnormally thin.

*Corneal transplantation: Graft or corneal transplant.

*Chemistry (Course): Chemistry related to the composition of materials used in optics.

Topics:

Atomic Structures, Bonds

Chemical Kinetics

General principles of chemical equilibrium

Solutions, Chemical Equilibrium in solution

Introduction to Organic Chemistry

Polymers

Material handling and basic techniques in Chemistry Laboratory

*Radiology: Part of medicine that studies the applications of x rays to the diagnosis of diseases.

*Reflection: Phenomenon in which the ray of light is reflected when it hits a surface.

*Refraction: Refraction is the change of direction that a wave experiences when passing from one material medium to another. In the case of the eye, the wave of light undergoes refraction because it comes from the air to the interior of the eye, which constitutes a change in the material medium through which it is transmitted.

*Retina: Tissue sensitive to light located at the back of the eye; similar to a canvas where the images are projected.

*Public Health (Course):

Public Health Functions

Health Management and Administration

Phases and applications of Epidemiology

Importance and significance of vision problems from the epidemiological point of view

Environmental and occupational risks factors that can cause visual problems

Prevention and maintenance programs related to visual health of the population

*Symptomatology: Symptoms: Revealing sign of a disease.

*Sensory Nervous System: Part of the nervous system responsible for processing information of senses, in this case, vision.

*Therapeutic: Therapy: Treatment.

*Topography: Relief of a surface.

*Fusional Vergence: Related to eye convergence and divergence.

*Binocular Vision: It is that vision where the two eyes are used together and the images of both are superimposed to create a three-dimensional vision, which allows depth perception.

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