Geology


Career Objectives

Perform a scientific research of the planet Earth. Learn to maintain and take care of its resources. Favor the best use of the planet's resources.


Professional Profile

His purpose is to know the Earth by exploring and researching its structure, such as, which elements form it (its formation), how it was formed (its origin), its physical and chemical processes (its behavior) and how it has changed over time (its evolution).

For that, he explores different sectors, investigating the different layers of the earth’s crust to define what happens in its surface and subsurface, which have been the geological processes of rocks and other related materials, which zones have faults and which are prone to earthquakes.

This research is not exhausted since geology is not static, for instance, The Andes are alive and growing, changing, and also they are also being destroyed as a result of erosion.

Everyday there are developments in the area of Geology, whether a volcano, floods, etc.

Geology can be developed through Applied Research and Basic Research.

Applied Research is focused on:

-The study of Mineral Resources (Mineralogy and Petrography).

He explores and locates ore deposits.

He develops geological maps that serve as a tool to evaluate the possibilities of mineral resources exploitation such as petroleum, gas and other minerals apart from groundwater resources (water).

These geological maps have typified all the types of rocks that exist in different areas in the country, considering their age and other features.

With these data, the search for new deposits and resources is much more restricted and easier because copper, for example, is not found in any type of rock, this one must have very special features, so this helps to explore in the appropriate area.

-The prospecting and exploitation of natural resources, such as the exploration of groundwater (Hydrogeology).

-This resource is scarce and is required by cities, agriculture and industry.

- They advise various branches of Engineering as well as telecommunications and navigation.

-For instance, they carry out the study of the characteristics of grounds on which civil engineering works are based (buildings, bridges, motorways, tunnels). So you can avoid, for instance, a flood flattens bridges, roads or people, which is a potential risk, there are lots of things to do with the issue of natural disasters (Geological Engineering).

Basic Research can refer to:

-Geology of the environment.

-Where advice is given in term of how to use the environment, avoiding pollution problems.

-The idea is to approach territorial planning based on geological knowledge, because it cannot be built anywhere, you cannot throw garbage or extract water anywhere.

That is called land-use or spatial planning. Through these types of studies, we know that we should never have built in a certain place, the idea is to foresee.

-He carries out decontamination tasks, for instance, decontaminating ground water as a result of acid water coming from mining that kills flora and fauna.

-Seismology (Study of tectonic plates, movement of continents, folds, faults, etc).

-Volcanology, prediction of volcanic eruptions.

-Paleontology (Study of fossils).

-Geology focused on Astronomy.

-Study of the evolution of the Earth, of the history of the planets and the Solar System through the geological study of rocks photographed by space probes sent into Mars such as Mars Pathfinder, which at the moment continues investigating in its geology since it is still an enigma.


Specific tasks or activities carried out in the profession

-He explores the area and obtains samples in the field and performs soil analysis, determining types of strata, sediments, fill of basins, valleys or a city map, and, therefore, determine the characteristics of the fill, which areas are removable or can cause sliding.

-To carry out research and refine or develop *concepts, *theories and *methods of geology and geophysics.

-To analyze rocks, minerals, fossil remains and other elements, in order to discover processes that have determined the evolution of the Earth and wildlife and establish the nature and chronology (determine the order and dates) of geological formations.

-To interpret (find the meaning) the results of research.

-Prepare reports, maps, charts and geological diagrams, with the information obtained.

-To carry out *surveys and geological studies, focused on the search and evaluation of mineral resources, water or fossil fuels. To know what is inside of the mountain ridge, drillings are made through a hole, in which a cylinder of rock is extracted, which is analyzed chemically.

This allows finding out which type of rock exists inwards.

In every deposit there is a geological model which determines the type of material that must be found.

-To figure out where the mineral is and which its volume is. Once the information is collected, the mining engineer processes it and proposes the alternatives of exploitation of such material.

-To carry out this task, everything is used, from mules, horses and hammers to satellites; link systems and laboratory equipment.

-To apply geological knowledge in the solution of problems encountered in engineering works, whether for the design and construction of a motorway, a tunnel or a bridge.

-Study and calculate seismic, gravitational (gravitational force), electric, thermal (heat) and magnetic forces that affect the earth.

-Study and measure optical and acoustic phenomena of the atmosphere.

-Estimate the weight, size and volume of the earth and its composition and internal structure and study the nature and activity of volcanoes, glaciers and earthquakes.

-Trace charts of the Earth’s magnetic field and apply them, along with other data, for broadcasting and navigation purposes.

-Study and measure the physical properties of the seas and the atmosphere and their interrelations, such as in the case of thermal energy exchange (heat).

-Locate and determine the nature and extent of oil, gas and other mineral and underground water resources deposits using seismological, *gravimetric, magnetic, electric or *radiometric methods.

-Work at *petrographic laboratories of microscopes with transmitted light and reflected light; X-ray diffraction analysis laboratories and by atomic absorption *spectrophotometry, as well as in preparation workshops for cutting and polishing petrographic samples.

Technology in Geology

-The geologist in his beginning was a professional, who worked in the field with very few implements: a rock hammer, a compass, a magnifying glass to observe rocks and minerals, a notebook and a pencil, in addition to a geographic map with fewer details than the current ones.

With technology, especially computer and satellite, there have been significant advances.

Also, thanks to technology, geological knowledge has evolved, creating different models for the explanation of the construction and evolution of the Earth’s crust and, associated geological phenomena.

These have contributed to understand the processes of formation of deposits, which allows us to evolve and discover important deposits of copper, gold, salts and other minerals in exploitation.

Computing brought with it a greater speed, facilitating the elaboration of texts and geological maps.

With geographic information systems, the time of elaboration and production of a geological map can be up to 50% less than the time used with traditional methods.

In addition, global positioning systems, GPS, which allow you to locate quickly and accurately in the area, which is essential for geological work.

With the advance of the space age, this professional is entering into the research of interplanetary resources.


Occupational Field

Every country must know well the constitution of its territory to favor the best use of its resources, in addition to learning to maintain and take care of them.

-Organizations of Basic and Applied Geological Research of the national territory.

-Extractive Industry

-Energy Industries, mainly, oil companies

-State entities of prospection and exploitation of natural resources, such as the exploration of groundwater.

- Companies for planning and construction of civil works and human settlements.

-Construction Companies

-Companies for the exploration of natural resources

-State bodies in charge of the regional geological mapping.

-Seismology Research Centers

-Consulting Companies

-Universities (Teaching and Research).


Estimated time of College years

5 to 6 years depending on the institution that imparts it.


Main courses considered in the syllabus 

High schools subjects projected in the career

-Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry.

Basic Training Courses

-Mathematics, 6 courses (Descriptive Geometry, Analytic Geometry, Algebra, and Calculus).

-Chemistry

-Physics (2 courses)

-Electricity and Optics

-Basic Computing

Professional Training Courses

-General Geology

*Geochemistry

*Paleontology

*Crystallography and Mineralogy

*Macroscopic Petrography

-Optical Mineralogy

*Structural Geology (folds and faults)

*Geochemistry (Exogenous Processes)

*Petrography of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks

*Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks

-Geochemistry (Endogenous Processes)

*Geomorphology

*Stratigraphy

*Physical Chemistry (Mineralogical)

*Topography

*Geotecnotics

-Geology of the country

-Microscopy in Mining

*Geophysics

*Photogeology

*Field Geology

-Mineral Deposits

*Hydrogeology

-Mining Geology

*Geotechnics

Complementary Courses

Mineral Economics


Vocation, Skills and Interests required in the candidate to this career 


Interests

-Scientific Interest, especially for Natural Science, physical phenomena of Nature.

-Interest in asking questions, generating ideas and hypothesis in the Natural Science area.

-Interest in exploring lands.

-Interest in observing and collecting natural elements such as a variety of stones, pieces of rocks, seashells, etc. With special interest in their structure and composition more than their aesthetic part.


Skills

-Observation capacity

-Visual Acuity

­-Visual Memory

-Spatial and three-dimensional vision ability

-Ability to adapt to technical drawing

-Mathematical Calculation usage

-Analytical capacity using inductive and deductive ability

-Synthesis ability

-Have good physical condition and availability to carry out activities or practices in places of different nature, such as mountains, swamps, volcanoes, among others.

-Facility to adapt to different socioeconomic strata and command ability.


Vocation

This career satisfies investigation and application.

Research: Appreciation for scientific knowledge of the physical nature of what surrounds us. Such as the physical and biological nature of the planet, discover its origin, know what composes it, how it has evolved, how life was formed in it and in general in the cosmos, how to preserve life in it.

-To broaden the horizons of scientific knowledge.

Application: For the best use of natural resources of the planets and their conservation.

Applying scientific knowledge to find, exploit and use new natural resources that create goods and provide service.

Or any specific dream or longing which feels involved or oriented towards this direction.


Candidate Personality

-Intellectual, with appreciation for scientific knowledge.

- Physical and energetic personality with a predilection for staying in contact with nature.

-Patient and detail-oriented.


Work Scope

His work is mainly done in the field and also in laboratory work analyzing samples.

He must have a compatible health for fieldwork, from coastal sites to high mountains.

He must perform without problems in long walks, many times in height, diving and in general life in camp.

Normal vision of both eyes is also important in practical work with microscope and stereoscopes.


Related Careers

-Geography, Astronomy, Meteorology, Oceanography, Mining Engineering.


*Glossary of Terms

*Geodesy: Mathematical science that aims to determine the exact position of points on the earth’s surface, and the shape and magnitude of this surface or its larger areas.

*Photogrammetry: Procedure to obtain plans of large areas of lands through photographs.

*Engineering Basic Sciences: Previous subjects that serve as basis or as tools to the subjects of the specialty.

*Survey: Describe and represent a terrain in detail.

*Concept: Cognitive and representative idea of a phenomenon which leads to its better understanding.

*Theories: Propositions, assumptions and rational speculations to provisionally explain a phenomenon or a sequence of phenomena that have occurred.

*Method: Procedure, way to carry out research.

*Gravimetric Methods: Methods for measuring the value of gravity.

*Radiometric Methods: Methods for measuring the intensity of radiation.

*Seismologic Methods: Methods for measuring earthquakes.

*Petrography: Study, description and classification of rocks.

*Spectrophotometer: Device which determines the relative intensity of the radiation of two light signals of different frequency.

*Paleontology: Study of fossils.

*Crystallography and Mineralogy: Study of crystals and the natural formation of minerals of the planet.

*Macroscopic Petrography: Description and classification of rocks.

*Structural Geology: Study of the folds and faults of the earth’s crust.

*Geochemistry (Exogenous Processes): Study of how chemical elements are distributed in the earth’s crust, the proportion in which they are and how they are associated.

*Geochemistry (Endogenous Processes): Study of how chemical elements are distributed inside the Earth, the proportion in which they are and how they are associated.

Field Geology: Subject in which the acquired knowledge is implemented in the field.

* Petrography of Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks: Description and classification of igneous rocks (those in which the action of fire has intervened in their formation) and the natural transformation occurred after their permanent consolidation.

*Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks: Study of the origin and composition of rocks formed by deposits or by natural settling.

*Geomorphology: Study that describes the forms of the terrain.

*Stratigraphy: Study of the arrangement and characteristics of strata (mineral mass arranged in a uniform layer and is part of sedimentary lands, that is, deposits or natural settling).

*Topography: Features that a terrain has in its relief (surface).

*Geotecnotics: Study of the arrangement and structure of rocks and terrain of the earth’s crust.

*Geophysics: Study of the structure of the planet as a whole and the movements that affect it.

*Photogeology: Technique to develop geological maps through aerial photographs.

*Physical Chemistry: Subject that studies the energy coming from matter, it relates the chemical structure of substances with their physical properties.

*Hydrogeology: Study of the water cycle, especially groundwater.

*Geotechnics: Study of the composition and properties of the most superficial area of the earth’s crust, for the seat of all types of construction and public works.

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