Oceanography


Career Objectives

The protection and rational use of oceans.


Professional Profile

This professional performs studies of the processes that occur both in the ocean and in inland aquatic environments of the littoral region (coast) to establish strategies and actions that promote the preservation and *sustainable use of natural resources.

He provides answers, with solid scientific foundations, to problems and challenges that currently arise in the wise use of Oceans. His study includes four areas: Physical, Chemical, Biological and Geological Oceanography.


Specific tasks or activities carried out in the profession

He investigates the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems.

He determines and evaluates the dynamic processes of the marine environment such as surge, tides, currents, sediments, climate change, etc. For this, it is required staying months in the high seas.

He prepares *synoptic charts of oceanic properties.

He performs studies of the direction of currents by using ocean current maps, looks for causes that determine their direction, their repercussion in weather and in *outcrops.

He studies the chemical and biological components of seawater, such as the processes that maintain the salt balance in the ocean; the formation and decomposition processes of organic matter; the interaction between different chemical components of seawater with organisms, *sediments and the atmosphere.

He studies the development of living resources, their behavior and their relationships with the environment.

He associates the characteristics of the environment with the distribution of *hydrobiological resources.

He carries out the characterization of an area by performing monitoring programs in it; for this, he gets involved and directs the technical personnel in obtaining data collection and collecting biological samples, water samples and sediments from the seabed.

In laboratories, he carries out chemical analysis of seawater and sediments, determining salinity, *alkalinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen in water, as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the sediments.

He analyzes and processes information obtained from marine remote sensing, using computational means.

He interprets diagrams on tides and waves.

He provides his knowledge to the exploitation of biological and non-biological resources of the sea and the seabed, and makes the impact caused by humans known.

He carries out Environmental Impact studies. He studies pollutants and their effects on marine and inland waters. He examines the main sources of chemical compounds entering seawater and their impact on the production of organic matter in oceans.

He makes oceanographic monitoring and controls, and predicts the medium-term behavior of processes at sea.

He studies how phenomena of a specific region occur and work.

He analyzes phenomena that occur in one part of the world and investigates how they affect the rest of the planet.

He performs studies on how the circulation of water is generated in lakes and *estuaries.

He studies the *coastal dynamics in terms of ports, channels and *fiords.

He carries out oceanographic and ecological studies on port *dredging.

He performs environmental impact studies due to Spill Accidents of chemical products and ballast water.

He evaluates and monitors the environmental impact produced by production processes, the development of infrastructure projects and economic activities in general.

He solves problems of control of coastal pollutants.

He provides support to the environmental assessment of aquaculture projects.

He provides knowledge that allows the prevention of risks, or correct the problems that arise from the use humans make of the sea. He conducts studies on marine energy resources such as energy from tides, currents and waves.

He contributes in the planning and management of the coast. He conducts studies in the prevention of disasters as the case of *El Niño phenomenon, flood risks due to sea level rise, risk assessment in the coastal region produced by tsunamis, among others.

He works with marine resources and their *sustainability, the development of seafood and *aquaculture products, with wildlife species and confined farming.

Teaching at the university level or professional training

He carries out scientific publications as a result of research projects.


Occupational Field

The Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy

General Directorate of Maritime Territory

Fisheries Development Institute

Research and Higher Education in Universities or Research Centers

Aquaculture Centers

Fishing Industries

Companies studying the marine environment

Environmental and engineering consulting in both private and state institutions

National Institute of Fishery Research and Development

Public and private institutions that operate and execute works in oceanographic, climatological, coastal and environmental resources fields

International agencies such as FAO, IMO, UNEP, UNESCO

Companies of the area of Fishing, Development, Environment, Tourism, Culture, Education and Science, Industry and Commerce


Estimated time of College years

5 years

Main courses included in the study plan

Basic Training Courses

Mathematics (5 semesters)

*General Chemistry

Applied Computer Science

*Physics (3 semesters)

*Organic Chemistry

*Biochemistry

*Analytical Chemistry

Professional Area

*Descriptive Oceanography

*Marine Biology

*Benthology

*Marine Geology

Oceanographic Instruments and Observation Methods

Ecology of Marine Communities

Waves and Tides

*Marine Pollution

Dynamics of the Atmosphere and the Ocean

Management of Coastal Zones

*Coastal Processes

*Hydrography

*Ocean Engineering

Statistical Methods

*Chemical Oceanography (2 semesters)

*Physical Oceanography (2 semesters)

*Biological Oceanography (2 semesters)

*Geographic Information Systems and Oceanographic Data Processing

Complementary Training Courses

Project *Formulation and Management

Marine Resources Management

English

Specialties

*Physical Oceanography

*Chemical Oceanography

*Biological Oceanography

*Geological Oceanography


Vocation, Skills and Interests required in the candidate for this career


Interests

Special interest in knowing and protecting the marine natural world

Biological curiosity for marine flora and fauna

Interest in the sea and marine resources

Appreciation for Sciences

Motivation for microbiology work in the Laboratory

Interest in the application of Physics

Interest in the application of Organic chemistry

Motivation for contact with nature


Skills

Analysis Capacity

Observation Capacity

Ability to perceive and give meaning to what is observed

*Synthesis capacity

Strong understanding of mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology

Manual dexterity

Naturalist Intelligence, that is to say, the ability to perceive, observe and identify the differences and similarities given in elements of the natural world, as well as the existing relationships between them.

Ability to plan and organize in the selection, order, classification and recognition of sequences of development of a task


Vocation

For the defense and protection of the environment, especially the marine environment

Or any specific dream or longing which feels involved or oriented towards this direction.

Candidate’s Personality

Organized

Methodical

Patient

Rigorous

Detail-oriented

Adaptation to work in a team


Work Scope

Fieldwork (sea) on board ships, as in laboratory environments


Related Careers

Marine Ecology, Marine Biology, Aquaculture Engineering, Fisheries Management, *Aquaculture Technology, Bachelor’s Degree in Biology

Glossary of Terms

*Outcrops: Rocky structure that appears on the surface of the land or superficially below it.

*Alkalinity: It represents the acid neutralization capacity of an aqueous system.

*Aquaculture: Technique to farm aquatic animal and plant species.

*Benthology (Course): Study of marine invertebrate organisms such as annelids (soft-bodied animals with rings), echinoderms (animals with spiny bodies such as urchins), crustaceans and mollusks.

*Marine Biology (Course): Study of the flora, fauna, protozoa, fungi and all kinds of life that exists in the marine environment.

*Biochemistry (Course): Study of biomolecules and the chemical reactions that occur inside cells: metabolism (way in which the organism transforms food into energy and then eliminates the waste products) of carbohydrates (sugar), lipids (fat), proteins and nucleic acids (biomolecules that are present in all the cells and constitute the material base of the inheritance that is transmitted from one generation to another.

*Synoptic Chart: Map or chart that show the weather and atmospheric conditions present in a geographical area.

*Marine Pollution (Course): Known types and sources of pollution. –Wastewater discharge. –Direct or indirect discharges of industrial waste or energy to the marine environment. –Harmful effects on living resources and marine activities. –Dumping of waste and accidental discharges. –Oil spills. –Chemical accidents. –Spill control, monitoring and evaluation techniques.

*Dynamics: It refers to the variability of form and behavior.

*Dredging: Underwater excavation to clean sand, stones and other materials from the bottom of ports, rivers, canals, lakes and other navigable areas.

*El Niño: Weather phenomenon that changes the movement of air masses and as a consequence, it delays the speed of ocean currents, causing the warming of the South American waters.

*Estuary: Mouth of a river where salinity of its water is intermediate and variable, depending strongly on tides.

*Fiords: Deep and narrow entrance of the sea on the coast, between steep cliffs, created by the erosion produced by a glacier.

*Physics (Course): Kinematics (study of the laws of the motion of bodies), gravity, electricity and magnetism. –Analysis of wave theory from a basic perspective and preferably oriented to the propagation of waves in liquid media, especially, in water.

*Project Formulation and Management (Course): Introduction to the system of public projects. –Types of projects and competitive funds. –Phases to identify a project, use of participatory methodologies for analysis. –Project management and logical framework.

*Marine Geology (Course): Geological structures produced by deformation of the earth’s crust, minerals, types of rocks, erosion and soil. –Deformation and creation of mountains, mass movement, glaciers. –Seabed, marine sedimentation, beaches, barriers, platforms.

*Hydrography (Course): Description and systematic study of the different global water bodies, especially, of inland waters.

*Hydrobiological: Referred to life on the water.

*Ocean Engineering (Course):

Waves (Generation, propagation and wave forecasting, wave measurement and its mathematical modeling)

Coastal Engineering (Wind, waves, coastal currents, their energy content and effects on anchored structures, currents generated by waves).

Marine Structures (Shelter structures, dams, coastal protection structures such as jetties, dams, walls and coatings)

Structures of removal and containment of contaminants (Design of marine outfalls, containment techniques and elimination of oil stains)

Interaction between environmental dynamics and maritime structures (Forces exerted by a fluid on a submerged body)

Effects of maritime structures on waves

Effects of maritime structures on coastal currents

Forces exerted by waves on the structures

Forces exerted by currents on the structures

Forces exerted by wind on the structures

Ocean Energy (tidal energy, wave energy)

*Littoral: Zone that includes the waters and sea beds from the coast to about 200 m deep.

*Biological Oceanography (Course): Biological processes of the sea and biological flow of energy and matter, in relation to environmental aspects. –Spatial distribution of species and hydrobiological resources (Elements of flora and fauna of marine waters, lakes and rivers); aquatic ecology; loss of habitat and species in an environmental context. –Population decrease and extinction; invasion and introduction of species; disturbances and catastrophes. –Design of protected areas. –Fishery and aquaculture.

*Descriptive Oceanography (Course): Ocean distribution, topography, sediments, currents and circulation. –Ocean-atmosphere-continent interactions: water – salts balance. –Oceanographic factors and structure of marine populations and communities.

*Physical Oceanography (Course): Origin of oceans. –Plate tectonics (folds and faults that modify the earth’s crust): theory and evidence, continental and marine geology (study of the physical characteristics of the planet). –Marine areas. –Marine sediments: classification and distribution. –Properties of seawater: temperature, salinity, density. –Ocean-atmosphere interaction. –Ocean circulation. –Waves: characteristics and classification. –Tides. –Coastal currents, dynamics (process and change) of beaches, marine currents, waves and tides.

*Chemical Oceanography (Course): Effects of the physical, geological and biological processes on the composition of seawater. –Composition, entry and distribution of chemical components of seawater and their interaction with biota (flora and fauna of a given locality), sediments and the atmosphere. *Population: Set of organisms or individuals that coexist in the same space and time which share certain biological properties.

*Coastal Processes (Course): Coastal formation processes. –Types of coasts and their characteristics. –Dynamics and coastal currents. –Coastal ecosystems. –Ecology of coastal populations and communities. –Uses and impacts on coastal areas.

*Analytical Chemistry (Course): Analysis techniques that allow identifying qualitatively and quantitatively the components of different samples (which elements put it together and in which proportion they are).

*General Chemistry (Course): Measurement concepts, nomenclature (rules and norms to name all those combinations that occur between elements and chemical compounds), stoichiometry (Study of the proportions of matter involved in a chemical reaction), study of gases, properties of aqueous solutions.

*Organic Chemistry: Study of the molecules that contain carbon that are found in living beings, example: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, etc.

*Sediments: Matter suspended in a liquid or falling to the bottom.

*Synthesis: Composition of a body from its separate elements, after a process of analysis and previous research.

*Geographic Information System (GIS): Software designed to receive, store, manipulate, analyze and display information with reference to its geographical location, in order to solve complex territorial planning and management problems.

*Sustainability:*Sustainable: They refer to the balance of a species with the resources of its environment.

*Sustainable use: It refers to the balance of a species with the resources of its environment.

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